The Alphabet الحُروف الهجائِيَّة

Some of my students asked me to write some short lesson for FusHa as well as Egyptian Arabic. Actually I am not familiar with using blogs . I am completely new with using blogs. So forgive me if it appears with Egyptian Arabic.

Now ,I am going to write some short lessons

I am going to start with the Alphabet

Arabic language has 28 letters , they are connected to each other from both sides except 6 letters , They can be connected from right side only.

Those letters are ا – د – ذ- ر- ز – و

Arabic language is written from right to left.

Let’s start with the letters ا – ب – ت – ث

Alif is connected only from the right side

It is pronounced as the letter A

Example : أحمَد Ahmed

Baa can be joined from both sides

It is pronounced as the letter B

Example: بَاب baab , door

Taa is also joined from both sides

It is pronounced as letter T

Example: تاج taag crown

Thaa is written the same as baa , and taa but with 3 dots

Now , If you want to join ب and ا , it will be با

ب – ا- ب – ا it will be بابا it means dad baba

أ – ب it will be أب it mean a father up

ب – ا – ب it will be باب it means a door baab

now , how can you join the following?

ت – ا – ب

ت – ب – ا

ا – ث- ب

ث – ب – ا – ت

Hello Again, Now lets continiue learning letters from ج toخ (Geem to Khaa )


Geem is pronounced as the letter G , it is joined from both side

Exampl: جَمَل Gamal , a camel

ح , no equivalent for ح , but it can be more similar with (H)

Example: حِصان horse Hisan

خ It is pronounced as (Kh)

Example : Khan خان Khabaaz خَبَّاز bakery

Now, letters from daal د to ز zeen

Daal is the the second letter that is not joined from left side

Daal د It is pronounced as the letter D

Example: دَجاجة Dagaga a chicken

Zaal , is the third letter that is not joined from left side . It is pronounced as (th) in the word (the). the tongue should be between the teeh and go a little outside the mouth

Example: ذَيل tail, zail

Raa , is the fourth letter that is not joined from left side .
It is pronounced as (R)

Example: رَجُل ragul a man

Zaien , is the fifth letter that is not joined from the left side. It is
pronounced as (z)

Example: زَرافة zarafa

Now, letters from Seen س to Thaa ظ

Seen س , is pronounced as the letter S , it is joined from both side
Example: سَمَاء Samaa a sky

Sheen ش , is pronounced as (Sh or Ch ) , it is joined from both side
Example: شَمْس Shams a sun

Saad , ص, is pronounced as (strong S) (like the s of the word (Son), it is joined from both side
Example صَبَاح Sabah -morning

Daad , ض, is pronounced as (strong D) , it is joined from both side
Example ضَيْف Dayf -guest

Taa , ط, is pronounced as (strong T) , it is joined from both side , like the one in the word (Tom)
Example طَاوِلَة Tawela -table

Thaa ,ظ, is pronounced as (strong Th) like the one in the word (though ), it is joined from both side
Example ظَرْف Tharz -envelop

Now, letters from 3een (ayn) ع to kaaf ك

Ayn , there is no equivalent for this letter , so you should listen how native speaker pronounce it . Most of non native speaker pronounce it as (a) but it is not the right pronunciation

Ghayn , is pronounced as (gh ) ( I am going to upload a video for the pronunciation for all the letters

Faa , is pronounced as the letter (F)

Example : فول fool (beans )

Qaaf , is pronounced as the letter Q , it is joined from both sides
Example: قلب qalb heart

Kaaf , is pronounced as the letter K , it is joined from both sides
Example: كِتاب kitaab book

  • Letters from laam ل to yaa ي

Laam , is pronounced as the letter L , it is joined from both sides
Example: لَيمون laimoon lemon

Meem , is pronounced as the letter M , it is joined from both sides
Example: مُدَرِّس modarres teacher

Noon , is pronounced as the letter N , it is joined from both sides
Example: نور noor light

Haa , is pronounced as the letter ( H ), it is joined from both sides
Example: هُنا hona here

Waaw , is pronounced as the letter (O or W) , it is joined from the right side only .
Example: وَلَد wala boy

Yaa , is pronounced as the letter Y , it is joined from both sides
Example: يَد yaad hand

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